ADHD in Adults

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ADHD Symptom Snapshot

There are 3 core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The following are examples of how ADHD symptoms may appear in adults.

Only a doctor or other health care professional can diagnose ADHD.

ONLY A DOCTOR OR OTHER HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONAL CAN DIAGNOSE ADHD

Symptoms of Inattention

  • Often makes careless mistakes and lacks attention to details
    (Examples: overlooking or missing details or handing in work that is inaccurate)
  • Often has difficulty paying attention to tasks
    (Example: difficulty remaining focused during lectures, conversations, or lengthy readings)
  • Often seems to not listen when spoken to directly
    (Example: mind seems elsewhere, even in the absence of obvious distraction)
  • Often fails to follow through on instructions, chores, or duties in the workplace
    (Example: starts tasks but quickly loses focus and is easily sidetracked)
  • Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
    (Examples: messy, disorganized work; poor time management; fails to meet deadlines)
  • Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to participate in tasks requiring sustained mental effort, like preparing reports, completing forms, or reviewing lengthy papers 
  • Often loses things like tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, and mobile phones
  • Often easily distracted by other things, including unrelated thoughts
  • Often forgetful in daily activities, such as running errands, returning calls, paying bills, and keeping appointments

Symptoms of Hyperactivity and Impulsivity

  • Often fidgets with or taps hands and feet or squirms in seat
  • Often leaves seat when remaining seated is expected
    (Example: leaves their place in the office or other workplace setting or in other situations that require remaining seated)
  • Often runs or climbs where it is inappropriate or feels restless (in adults, may be limited to feeling restless)
  • Often unable to participate in leisure activities quietly
  • Often acts as if “on the go” or “driven by a motor”
    (Example: is unable to be or uncomfortable being still for an extended time, as in meetings or restaurants)
  • Often talks excessively
  • Often blurts out an answer before a question has been fully asked
    (Examples: completes people’s sentences; cannot wait for next turn in conversation)
  • Often has difficulty waiting his or her turn, for example, while waiting in line
  • Often interrupts or intrudes on others
    (Examples: butts into conversations, games, or activities; may start using other people’s things without asking or receiving permission; may intrude into or take over what others are doing)

Europe’s most dangerous pathogens: Climate change increasing risks

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Europe’s most dangerous pathogens: Climate change increasing risks

Date:
August 2, 2017
Source:
University of Liverpool
Summary:
The impact of climate change on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases could be greater than previously thought, according to new research.

The impact of climate change on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases could be greater than previously thought, according to new research by the University of Liverpool.

The study, published in Scientific Reports, is the first large-scale assessment of how climate affects bacterium, viruses or other microorganisms and parasites (pathogens) that can cause disease in humans or animals in Europe.

The results will help policy makers prioritise the surveillance for pathogens that may respond to climate change and, in turn, contribute to strengthening climate change resilience for infectious diseases.

Epidemics

There is growing evidence that climate change is altering the distribution of some diseases, in some cases causing epidemics or making diseases spread within their natural range, for example, Zika virus in South America, or bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in livestock in Europe.

Dr Marie McIntyre, who led the project at the University’s Institute of Infection and Global Health, explained: “Although there is a well-established link between climate change and infectious disease, we did not previously understand how big the effects will be and which diseases will be most affected.

“Climate sensitivity of pathogens is a key indicator that diseases might respond to climate change, so assessing which pathogens are most climate-sensitive, and their characteristics, is vital information if we are to prepare for the future.”

Largest effects

The researchers carried out a systematic review of published literature on one hundred human and one hundred domestic animal pathogens present in Europe that have the largest impact on health.

Nearly two-thirds of the pathogens examined were found to be sensitive to climate; and two-thirds of these have more than one climate driver, meaning that the impact of climate change upon them will likely be multifaceted and complex.

Diseases spread by insects and ticks (vector-borne diseases) were found to be the most climate sensitive, followed by those transmitted in soil, water and food. The diseases with the largest number of different climate drivers were Vibrio cholerae (cause of cholera), Fasciola hepatica (cause of liver fluke), Bacillus anthracis (cause of anthrax) and Borrelia burgdorferi (cause of tickborne Lyme disease).

Future effects

Dr Marie McIntyre, commented: “Currently, most models examining climate effects only consider a single or at most two climate drivers, so our results suggest that this should change if we really want to understand future impacts of climate change on health.”

Zoonotic pathogens — those that spread from animals to humans — were also found to be more climate sensitive than those that affect only humans or only animals. As 75% of emerging diseases are zoonotic, emerging diseases may be particularly likely to be impacted by climate change.

However, the researchers stress that their response to climate change will also be dependent on the impacts of other drivers, such as changes to travel and trade, land-use, deforestation, new control measures and the development of antimicrobial resistance.

Big Data

The top 100 human and animals list was compiled using the Enhanced Infectious Disease Database (EID2), — a comprehensive and open-access ‘Big Data’ record of over 60 million scientific papers, electronic sources and textbooks associated with infectious diseases that was developed in Liverpool.


Story Source:

Materials provided by University of LiverpoolNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

7 Natural Remedies For Joint Pain

Natural Remedies For Joint Pain

When joint pain flares up, you want relief—fast. But you might not want to pop a pain reliever, especially if you’re concerned about side effects or interactions with other drugs. Or maybe meds alone aren’t doing enough, so you’re looking to add a drug-free remedy to your arsenal. Ice and heat are great, but they’re not your only options. Here are 7 more natural ways to fight inflammation and ease your ache. (The Power Nutrient Solution is the first-ever plan that tackles the root cause of virtually every major ailment and health condition today; get your copy now!)

Stick a pin in it

The scientific proof that acupuncture improves osteoarthritis pain is a little iffy. (Studies have been mixed, and it’s hard to rule out the placebo effect.) But a 2013 research review did conclude that there’s some evidence that this alternative treatment improves pain and stiffness in people with fibromyalgia(an arthritis-like condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain). So if you’re not averse to needles, book a few sessions. Just remember that frequent visits may be needed before you see results, and most insurance plans won’t cover it, says Sheryl Mascarenhas, MD, an assistant professor of rheumatology at The Ohio State University. (See what else acupuncture can treat.)

MORE: 11 Effective Solutions For Sciatic Nerve Pain

Take to the water.
Take to the water

Swimming, water aerobics, and other aquatic activities “promote flexibility and strength without high impact,” says Mark Karadsheh, MD, an orthopedic surgeon at the William Beaumont Hospital in Royal Oak, MI. A 2014 review in the journal Physical Therapy found that exercising in water reduces pain and improves physical functioning in people with osteoarthritis of the lower limbs. Meanwhile, a 2015 study from The Netherlands found that a 45-minute aquatic circuit training session helped relieve the pain of knee osteoarthritis.

Spice things up.
Spice things up

Capsaicin, a substance responsible for the heat in hot peppers, is also used in topical pain-relieving creams and ointments. “It temporarily uses up substance P [a brain chemical that stimulates pain receptors], which redirects nerves so you don’t feel pain in the joint,” explains Mascarenhas, who notes that it can provide significant relief. In fact, a study from Case Western Reserve University found that 80% of people with osteo or rheumatoid arthritis had less pain after applying capsaicin cream four times a day for 2 weeks.

Consider supplements.
Consider supplements
Consider supplements.

Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate (both found in human cartilage) are popular for treating the pain and swelling associated with osteoarthritis. Studies on their effectiveness have been mixed, but a 2015 research review determined that this combo significantly reduces pain and improves functioning in people with osteoarthritis of the knee. “There’s no risk associated with taking them so they’re worth a shot,” says Karadsheh.

Go fish.
Go fish

It’s no secret that omega-3 fatty acids, including fish oil supplements, have anti-inflammatory properties. It turns out these supplements also could help aching joints feel better. A 2015 study from Thailand found that when people with osteoarthritis of the knee took 1,000 mg of fish oil supplements (a combination of EPA, or eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA, or docosahexaenoic acid) once a day for 8 weeks, their pain decreased and their functioning improved significantly. Other research has found that getting more omega-3s enabled people with rheumatoid arthritis to reduce their reliance on NSAIDs.

Embrace an ancient martial art.
Embrace an ancient martial art

Practicing tai chi is a low-impact way to strengthen the muscles around your joints and increase your range of motion, says Karadsheh. A 2013 review of seven randomized controlled trials found that a 12-week tai chi program improves symptoms of pain, stiffness, and physical function in peopl

Female Foot Pain

Anatomical illustration of human foot

The feet are flexible structures of bones, joints, muscles, and soft tissues that let us stand upright and perform activities like walking, running, and jumping. The feet are divided into three sections:

  • The forefoot contains the five toes (phalanges) and the five longer bones (metatarsals).
  • The midfoot is a pyramid-like collection of bones that form the arches of the feet. These include the three cuneiform bones, the cuboid bone, and the navicular bone.
  • The hindfoot forms the heel and ankle. The talus bone supports the leg bones (tibia and fibula), forming the ankle. The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest bone in the foot.

Muscles, tendons, and ligaments run along the surfaces of the feet, allowing the complex movements needed for motion and balance. The Achilles tendon connects the heel to the calf muscle and is essential for running, jumping, and standing on the toes.

Feet Conditions

  • Plantar fasciitis: Inflammation in the plantar fascia ligament along the bottom of the foot. Pain in the heel and arch, worst in the morning, are symptoms.
  • Osteoarthritis of the feet: Age and wear and tear cause the cartilage in the feet to wear out. Pain, swelling, and deformity in the feet are symptoms of osteoarthritis.
  • Gout: An inflammatory condition in which crystals periodically deposit in joints, causing severe pain and swelling. The big toe is often affected by gout.
  • Athlete’s foot: A fungal infection of the feet, causing dry, flaking, red, and irritated skin. Daily washing and keeping the feet dry can prevent athlete’s foot.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune form of arthritis that causes inflammation and joint damage. Joints in the feet, ankle, and toes may be affected by rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Bunions (hallux valgus): A bony prominence next to the base of the big toe that may cause the big toe to turn inward. Bunions may occur in anyone, but are often caused by heredity or ill-fitting footwear.
  • Achilles tendon injury: Pain in the back of the heel may suggest a problem with the Achilles tendon. The injury can be sudden or a nagging daily pain (tendinitis).
  • Diabetic foot infection: People with diabetes are vulnerable to infections of the feet, which can be more severe than they appear. People with diabetes should examine their feet daily for any injury or signs of developing infection such as redness, warmth, swelling, and pain.
  • Swollen feet (edema): A small amount of swelling in the feet can be normal after prolonged standing and common in people with varicose veins. Feet edema can also be a sign of heart, kidney, or liver problems.
  • Calluses: A buildup of tough skin over an area of frequent friction or pressure on the feet. Calluses usually develop on the balls of the feet or the heels and may be uncomfortable or painful.
  • Corns: Like calluses, corns consist of excessive tough skin buildup at areas of excessive pressure on the feet. Corns typically have a cone shape with a point, and can be painful.
  • Heel spurs: An abnormal growth of bone in the heel, which may cause severe pain during walking or standing. People with plantar fasciitis, flat feet, or high arches are more likely to develop heel spurs.
  • Ingrown toenails: One or both sides of a toenail may grow into the skin. Ingrown toenails may be painful or lead to infections.
  • Fallen arches (flat feet): The arches of the feet flatten during standing or walking, potentially causing other feet problems. Flat feet can be corrected with shoe inserts (orthotics), if necessary.
  • Nail fungal infection (onychomycosis): Fungus creates discoloration or a crumbling texture in the fingernails or toenails. Nail infections can be difficult to treat.
  • Mallet toes: The joint in the middle of a toe may become unable to straighten, causing the toe to point down. Irritation and other feet problems may develop without special footwear to accommodate the mallet toe.
  • Metatarsalgia: Pain and inflammation in the ball of the foot. Strenuous activity or ill-fitting shoes are the usual causes.
  • Claw toes: Abnormal contraction of the toe joints, causing a claw-like appearance. Claw toe can be painful and usually requires a change in footwear.
  • Fracture: The metatarsal bones are the most frequently broken bones in the feet, either from injury or repetitive use. Pain, swelling, redness, and bruising may be signs of a fracture.
  • Plantar wart:  A viral infection in the sole of the foot that can form a callus with a central dark spot.  Plantar warts can be painful and difficult to treat.
  • Morton’s neuroma: A growth consisting of nerve tissue often between the third and fourth toes. A neuroma may cause pain, numbness, and burning and often improves with a change in footwear.

    Feet Tests

    • Physical exam: A doctor may look for swelling, deformity, pain, discoloration, or skin changes to help diagnose a foot problem.
    • Feet X-ray: A plain X-ray film of the feet can detect fractures or damage from arthritis.
    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan): An MRI scanner uses a high-powered magnet and a computer to construct detailed images of the foot and ankle.
    • Computed tomography (CT scan): A CT scanner takes multiple X-rays, and a computer constructs detailed images of the foot and ankle.

    Feet Treatments

    • Orthotics: Inserts worn in the shoes can improve many foot problems. Orthotics may be custom-made or standard-sized.
    • Physical therapy: A variety of exercises can improve flexibility, strength, and support of the feet and ankles.
    • Feet surgery: In some cases, fractures or other problems with the feet require surgical repair.
    • Pain medicines: Over-the-counter or prescription pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Motrin), and naproxen (Aleve) can treat most foot pain.
    • Antibiotics: Bacterial infections of the feet may require antibacterial drugs given orally or intravenously.
    • Antifungal medicines: Athlete’s foot and other fungal infections of the feet can be treated with topical or oral antifungal medicines.
    • Cortisone injection: An injection of a steroid may be helpful in reducing pain and swelling in certain foot problems.